The Tafsīr sūrat al-tawḥīd
(Commentary on the Surah of the Divine Unity)
Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsā’ī
The Commentary of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Ahsā’ī (d.1826)
In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate
In Him do we seek succor
He says, may God, exalted be He, give him peace:بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم "In the Name of God, the merciful, the Compassionate". Praised be unto God who does not intend that his questioner should have his hopes dashed, but [that he] be his guide through the key of his tongue and be the cause of the uplifting of his veil... the blessings of God be upon the key to the treasuries of His mysteries, [namely] Muhammad and his purified family, the Sayyids of the denizens of His earth and His heaven...
And now as for what I [the questioner] communicate, O [Shaykh Ahmad, the] key to the treasuries of the mysteries of the people of infallibility (ahl al-`iṣmat), our master, our Qibla (Point of Adoration) and the Solace of our eyes, our instructor and the enlivener of our beings beyond errors and doubts, the very sun of the heaven of excellence (al-ḥusn), disclosure (al-kashf), bounty (al-faḍl), glory (al-majd) and bountiful graces (al-fuyuḍāt), the most noble of the foremost and uppermost among the divines (`ulama')...
Now do I [Shaykh Aḥmad al-Ahsā'ī] say:
Relative to its exposition, the reality of the Sūrat al-tawḥīd (Surah of the Divine Unity, Q. 112) has numerous facets the stronghold of which can hardly be penetrated outside of [assistance through] our knowledge. Wherefore do we discourse upon whatsoever is presented to us of the implications of the text, relative that is, to what we have realized in line with what is authorized [for us] of [the secrets of] its exposition. Wherefore do we say that ..
is relayed from Imam [Ja`far] al-Ṣādiq -- upon him be peace --- that "The [letter] "B" (al-bā') is bahā’-Allāh ("the Splendour-Beauty of God"), the [letter] "s" (al-sīn) is sanā'-Allāh ("the Brightness of God") and the [letter] "m" (al-mīm) is the majd-Allāh ("the Radiance of God")". It is [normally] relayed [in the tradition] that it [the letter "m"] is the mulk-Allah (the Dominion of God) for [in reality] this corresponds to His (God's) Logos-Self (nafs) for such is indeed possessed of bahā' (Glory-Splendour-Beauty...) which is [also expressed as the Divine] Luminary [Splendor] (al-ḍiyā'). And the intention of this is what precipitated its [the Logos-Self's] Genesis (ibtida') from existence by means of His Divine Will (min al-wujūd bi-mashiyyatihi). It [the Logos-Self, etc] is allusive of the Universal Intellect (al-`aql al-kullī) as is indicated in His [God's]-- exalted be He-- [qur'ānic] saying, مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاح "The likeness of His Light is as [light streaming from] a Niche (mishkat) containing a Lamp (al-miṣbāḥ), etc." (= Q. 24:35a) as well as what preceded it of the Loci of Intellect [generated] existence (al-wujud al-`aqliyya) ADD