Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā Suhrawardī  (549/ 587 AH = 1154-1191 CE),

Mausoleum of the Shaykh al-Ishrāq...

Suhrawardī = Shihāb al-Dīn `Abū al-Futūḥ Yaḥyā  ibn Ḥabash ibn Amīrak Suhrawardī (executed,  587/1191).


IN PROGRESS 2008-9

Primary sources, Ishrāqī texts and Studies in Illmunationism.

Works of Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā Suhrawardī  (d.587/1191).

Major 3 volume Compilations ed. Corbin and Nasr.

  • Opéra metaphysica et mystica Tome I, ed. H. Corbin, Istanbul, Ma`arif Matbaası, 1945.

  • Opéra metaphysica et mystica Tome I, ed. H. Corbin, Tehran: Academie Imperiale Iranienne de Philosophie, 1976.

  • Opéra Metaphysica et mystical 1.  Edited and Introduction by Henry Corbin. Tehran: Institut d'Etudes et des Recherches Culturelles, 1993.

  • Opéra metaphysica et mystica Tome 2, ed. H. Corbin, Tehran, Institut Franco-Iranien, 1952.

  • Opéra Metaphysica et Mystical 2. Edited and Introduction by Henry Corbin, Tehran: Institut d'Etudes et des Recherches Culturelles, 1993.

  • Oeuvres Philosophiques et Mystiques. Tome III  ed. S.H. Nasr / H. Corbin, Tehran, Institut Franco-Iranien, 1970.

  • Œuvres Philosophiques et Mystiques. ed. Nasr & Corbin . Tome III. Œuvres en Persan. Tehran & Paris, 1970.

  • ed. Nasr & Corbin.,  Tome III. Oeuvres en Persan. Tehran & Paris, 1970. 157+494pp.  *

  • Opéra Metaphysica et Mystical III. Edited and Introduction by Seyyed H. Naşr. Tehran: Institut d'Etudes et des Recherches Culturelles, 1993.

  • Majmū'a-yi Musannafāt-i Shaykh-i Ishraq: Œuvres philosophiques et mystiques. 3 vols. Edited by Henry Corbin. Bibliothäque Iranienne, n.s. Tehran: Academie Imperiale Iranienne de Philosophie, 1976-77. First published: vol. l : Istanbul: Ma`arif Matbaası,  1945; vols. 2-3: Tehran: Institut Franco-Iranien, 1954-70.

  • Oeuvres Philosophiques et Mystiques. ed. Nasr & Corbin.,  Nouvelle Series Tome III. Oeuvres en Persan [= Académie Impériel Iranienne de Philosophie Pulication No. 14]. Tehran & Paris, 1977. 157+494pp.  *


  •  

Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq  (Philosophy of Illumination)

  • Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq in Opera metaphysica et mystica Tome 2, ed. H. Corbin, Tehran, Institut Franco-Iranien, 1952 Reprint 1977, pp.1-260..

  • Hikmat al-Ishraq, in Majmū'a II :9-260; Suhrawardî, Philosophy and Suhrawardî, Sagesse...

  • Hikmat al-Ishrāq. Persian translation and commentary, Sayyid Ja`far Sajjadi (No. 1562). Tehran: Intisharat-i Daneshgah-i Tehran, 1361/1983. *

  • Le Livre de la Sagesse Orientale: Kitāb Hikmat al-Ishraq. trans. and Notes Henry Corbin + Introd. Christian Jambert, Paris: Verdier, 1986 (694 pp.).*

  • Hikmat al-Ishraq. Persian trans. Dr. Sayyid Ja`far Sajjadi Tehran:  Intisharat-i Daneshgah-i Tehran, 1361/1983. *

  • The Philosophy of Illumination. A New critical edition of the text of the Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq with English translation, Notes, Commentary and Introduction. John Walbridge and Hossein Ziai. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1999.*


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Commentaries on the Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq (The Philosophy of Illumination")

  • Shihāboddīn Yahya Sohravardī: La Livre De La Sagesse Orientale (Kitab Hikmat al-Ishraq). Lagrasse: Veridier, 1986.  traduction et notes par Henry Corbin ; âetablies et introduites par Christian Jambet / Introduction by Christian Jambet, French trans.and notes by Henri Corbin,  includes data on the Commentaries on the Hikmat al-Ishraq of Qutb al-Din Shirazi and Mulla Sadra Shirazi.

Kalimat al-tasawwuf. In Si risalah äz shaykh-i ishrāq, edited by Najafqulĩ Habibï. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of philosophy,
1977.

 Kitāb al-ljimahāt. In Si risalah az shaykh-i ishrarı^ edited by Najaf quii Habibï. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1977.  Le Livre de la sagesse orientale. Translation and notes by H. Corbin. Paris: Verdier, 1986.

Shahrazūrī, Shams al‑Dīn Muhammad ibn Mahmud (d. after 688/1288),

  • Sharḥ Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq (Commentary on the Philosophy of Illumination) Critical edition of the 13th century Arabic text , Introduction and Notes by Hossein Ziai, Tehran: Institute for Cultural Studies and Research, 1372/1993. *

Quṭb al-Din Shirazi , Maḥmūd Ibn Maṣūd 634-710 AH = 1236-1311 CE)

  • Sharḥ Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq. Lithograph Tehran, [564pp.] 1315/1896 [7].  includes glosses of Mulla Sadrā.

  • Sharḥ-i hikmat al-ishrāq. Tehran: Tehran UniversityI Press, 1951.
        

Harawī, Muhammad-Sharif Nizâm al-Dīn ( d. 11XX/16XX)

`Anwārîya ("Abodes of Light") written 1008/1600.

  • `Anwārîya: Tarjuma wa-Sharh-i Hikmat al-Ishraq-i Suhrawardî'. Ed. Hossein Ziai.Markaz-i Ïranï-yi Mutāla'a-yi Farhanghā, Majmũ'a-yi Mutāla'āt-i Islāmī 3. Tehran: Amīr Kabir, 1363 Sh. /1980+ 1363 Sh./1984. Persian Commentary on the Hikmat al-Ishraq (xxxix+261pp). *

__________________________

Further works of Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā Suhrawardī  (d.587/1191).

Hayākil al-Nūr  ("Temples of Light").

  • Hayakil = Hayakil al-Nūr. [= al-Salalaat al-Ishrāqiyya no. 1] ed. Muhammad `Alī Abū Rayyān. Cairo:  Maktabat  al-Tujariyya al-Kubra = Grande Library Commerciale, 1377/1957  (125pp.).  *

  • The shape of light, Hayakal al-Nur interpreted by Shaykh Tosun Bayrak al-Jerrahi al-Halveti, Louisville, KY : Fons Vitae, c. 1998  *

  • Thalāth rasa'il : Tafsir surat al-Kafirun, Shawakil al-hur fi sharh Hayakil al-nur, Risalat Unmadhaj al-`ulum. wa-bi-dhaylihi Risalat Hayakil al-nur  min musannafat Jalal al-Din Muhammad ibn As`ad al-Dawwani; tahqiq Ahmad Taysirkani, Mashhad: Bunyād-i Pizhuhishha-yi Islami,  Risālah-'i Hayākil al-nūr: matn-i ‘Arabī, tarjumah-'i kuhan-i Fārs ī, sharḥ-i Fārsī az ‘ahd-i āl-i Muzaffar, Shahāb al-Dīn Yahyá Suhravardī ; bih tashīh va muqaddimah-'i Karīm ī Zanjānī  āsl  Tehrān : Nashr-i Nuqtah, 1379 /2000.  *

  • Hayakil al-Nūr. Ed. Muhammad Abu Rayyan. Cairo: al-Maktaba al-Tijarîya al-Kubrā, 1957.

  • Hayākil al-Nūr. Trans, in Ku^pinar, Ismā 'īl Anķaravī.
     

  • Dawwani, Muhammad ibn As`ad `Abd al-Haqq, Muhammad Kaukan, Muhammad Yusuf, Shawakil al-hur fi Sharh Hayakil al-nur : huwa sharh li-Hayakil al-nur li-Shihab al-Din Abu al-Futuh Yahya ibn Habash ibn Amirak al-Suhrawardi.  Madras:  Nazim al-Maktabah sic al-Makhtuat al-Sharqiyyah li-Hukumat Madras., 1953.

al-Alwāḥ al-'lmādiyya.

  • In Opera Metaphysica et Mystical Tome III. Edited and Introduction by Seyyed H. Naşr. Item 3 on pp.109-195.
  • In Suhrawardî. Three Treatises, pp. 1-78 = Three Trestises (al-Alwah al-`imadiyyah, Kalimat al-tasawwuf, al-Lamahat). ed.+ introd. Najaf Golī-Ḥabibī, English preface Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1397/1967
  • Alwāh-i 'lmādĩ. In Majmū'a, vol. 3, pp. 105-95.

Kalimat al-Taşawwuf.

  • In Suhrawardî, Three Treatises = Three Trestises (al-Alwah al-`imadiyyah, Kalimat al-tasawwuf, al-Lamahat). ed.+ introd. Najaf Golī-Ḥabibī, English preface Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1397/1967
     

Kitāb al-Talwihāt al-Lawhiyya ("The Book of                ").

  • Ed. Corbin in  Opera metaphysica et mystica Tome I,  (Istanbul, Ma`arif Matbaası) 1945. , pp. 70-74.

  • Kitāb al-Talwihāt al-Lawhiya wa Ί- 'Arshĩya. In Majmū 'a 1:1-121.

Kitāb al-Masharia wa'l-Mutarihatāt,

  • Ed. Corbin in Istanbul 1945. ADD.

Ha'iri, Mehdi, Y.

  • (trans. + comm. )`Suhrawardi's An Episode and a Trance: A Philosophical Dialogue in Mystical State' in Morewedge, Parviz (.ed.) Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books 1981[Rep. 1997] pp. 177-189.

Kitāb al-Lamahāt, (The Book of the").

  • Kitāb al-lamahāt, lil-Suhrawardī. Haqqaqahu wa-qaddama lahi Amīl al-Ma‘lūf (= Philosophical Texts and Studies III), Beirut, Dār al-Nahār lil-Nashr, 1969 .  *

  • Three Trestises (al-Alwah al-`imadiyyah, Kalimat al-tasawwuf, al-Lamahat). ed.+ introd. Najaf Golī-Ḥabibī, English preface Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Tehran:Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1397/1967

Mantiq al-Talwîhat.

  • Mantiq al-Talwîhat. ed. 'Alï-Akbar Fayyad. Intishārāt-i Dānishgāh-i Tihrān 270. Tehran, 1334/1955.

PERSIAN PHILOSOPHICAL AND ALLEGORICAL WRITINGS

Partaw nāmah ("The Book of Radiance").See full size image

 

 

  • ADD

  • Partaw nāmah. English & Persian, The book of radiance = Partawnāmah : a parallel English-Persian text. Ed. trans. , with an introduction by Hossein Ziai     Costa Mesa, CA : Mazda Publishers, 1998

  • Partow Nameh, The Book of Radiance, ed. trans. Hossen Ziai. MazdaPublisher, 1998.

Risalah al-Tayr ("The Treatise of the Birds") - in Persian.

  • ADD

  • ADD

  • Persian text ed. + Eng. trans.  1999 by W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp. 1-7.

Āvaz-i Par-i Jibra'il  ("The Sound of Gabriel's Wing") - in Persian.

  • 1st.ed. 1935 H. Corbin + Paul Kraus, "Traitée du bruissement de l'aile de Gabriel" in Journal Asiatique (July 1935): 1-82.

  • 2nd ed.  1945 [+ reprints] in Opéra Metaphysica et Mystica 1. Edited and Introduction by Henry Corbin. Istanbul., 1945 + ed. Corbin +Nasr, Tehran: Institut d'Etudes et des Recherches Culturelles, 1964+ 1993.

  • Trans. into Arabic by Paul Kraus partially printed in Khayali, Suhrawari, (1966), pp. 88-96

  • Corbin rev. French trans. 1976 in L'archange empourprâe : quinze traitâes et râecits mystiques (Henry Corbin,  Paris: Fayard, 1976) pp. 223-264.

  • Eng. trans.  1982 W. M. Thackston Jr. in The Mystical and Visionary Treatise of Suhrawardi (London: Octagon Press, 1982), pp.26-34.

  • Persian text + Eng. trans.  1999 W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp. 8-19.

Qāsemī.

  • "Sharh-i awāz-i par-ijibra'il." Maarit, no. 1 (March 1985): 77-99.

Tuft, Anthony.

  • Symbolism and Speculation in in Suhrawardi's, The Song of Gavriels's Wing' in Morewedge ed. = Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books 1981[1997] pp. 207-221.

`Aql-i Surkh ("The Red [Purple] Intellect") - in Persian.

  • Persian text  ed. Nasr + French trans by Corbin (pp.in Œuvres Philosophiques et Mystiques. ed. Nasr & Corbin . Tome III. Œuvres en Persan. Tehran & Paris, 1970.

  • (Rev.) French trans.  Corbin in L'Archange Empourpre ( Paris: 1976), pp.  ADD-ADD. 

  • Eng. trans.  1982 W. M. Thackston Jr. in The Mystical and Visionary Treatise of Suhrawardi (London: Octagon Press, 1982), pp. 35-42.

  • Persian text + Eng. trans.  1999 by W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp. 20-32.

Rūzī bā jamā`at Ṣūfiyān  ("A Day with a Group of Sufist") - in Persian.

  • Persian text + Eng. trans.  1999 by W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp. 33-41.

Risālah fi Ḥālat al-Ṭufūliyya ("Treatise On the State of Childhood") - in Persian.

  • Persian text + Eng. trans.  1999 by W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp.43-56.

Fī ḥaqīqat al-`Ishq  ("On the Reality of Enraptured Love" or "Solace of the Lovers")

  • Fī ḥaqīqat al-`Ishq   (On the Reality of Love) text and tr. In Suhrawardi, 1999  (Treatise VI), 58-76.

  • 1999 The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical Treatises, (Persian+ English text) ed. & tr. W.M. Thackston. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Pub. 1999.

  • Persian text + Eng. trans.  1999 by W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp. 58-76.

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Risālah-yi Lughat-i Mūrān ("Treatise On the Language of the Ants") - in Persian.

  • ADD

  • Persian text + Eng. trans.  1999 by W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp.77-90.

Risālah-yi Saghīr-i Sīmurgh ("Treatise On the Shrill Cry of the Simurgh") - in Persian.

  • ADD

  • Persian text + Eng. trans.  1999 by W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp.91-105.

Qiṣṣah al-Ghurba al-Gharbiyya ("Treatise On the Shrill Cry of the Simurgh") Arabic + Persian trans. and Commentary..

  • Qişşat al-Ghurba al-Gharbĩya, in Majmū'a 2: 273-97.

  • French trans. Henri Corbin, Avicenna and the Visionary Recital 137-150.

  • Persian text + Eng. trans.  1999 by W. M. Thackston Jr. in Suhrawardi, The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical  Treatises (Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers), 1999), pp.106-111 (Arabic text) + 112-124 (Persian trans. and Commentary).

 

COMPENDIA AND MISCELLANY

  • Rashf al-Naṣā'iḥ al-Aymaniyya wa Kashf al-Naḍa'ih al-Yunaniyya.  ADD

  • 1999 The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical Treatises, (Persian+ English text) ed. & tr. W.M. Thackston. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Pub. 1999.
  • Mūnis al-‘ushshāq ta'līf-i Shaykh Shihāb al-Dīn Suhravardī ma‘rūf bih Shaykh Ishrāq ; nazm-i ‘Imād al-Dīn ‘Arabsh āh Yazd ī ; bih inzimām-i sharḥ-i Mūnis al-‘ushshāq bih tashīh va tawzīh-i Najīb Māyil Haravī . Tehrān : Intishārāt-i Mawlá, 1366 [1987 or 1988]

  • L'archange empourprâe : quinze traitâes et râecits mystiques. Henry Corbin,  Paris: Fayard, 1976.

  •  al-Mashāri' wa'l-Muţarahat, in Majmū'a 1:194-506.

  •  al-Muqawamat, in Majmū'a 1:123-92.

  • Three Treatises. Ed. Najaf-Gholī Habībī. Lahore: Iran Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies, 1977.

  • Three Trestises (al-Alwah al-`imadiyyah, Kalimat al-tasawwuf, al-Lamahat). ed.+ introd. Najaf Golī-Ḥabibī, English preface Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Tehran:Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1397/1967

W. M. Thackston, Jr. (ed. and trans.)

  • The mystical and visionary treatises of Shihabuddin Yahya Suhrawardi  translated by W.M. Thackston, Jr Publish info London : Octagon, 1982  *

  • The philosophical allegories and mystical treatises / Shihabuddin Yahya Suhrawardi ; a parallel Persian-English text edited and translated with an introduction by Wheeler M. Thackston, Jr . Costa Mesa, Calif. : Mazda Publishers, 1999.  *

  • The Mystical and Visionary Treatises of Shihabuddin Yahya Suhrawardi. Translated by Wheeler M. Thackston Jr. London: Octagon Press, 1982. Review by Hermann Landolt. "Suhrawardfs 'Tales of Initiation'." Journal of the American Oriental Society 107.3 (1987): 475-86.

 

Diwan Shaykh al-Ishraq..

Diwan Shaikh al-Ishraq al-Suhrawardi

  • Diwan Shaykh al-Ishraq... ed. Ahmad Mustafa Husayn.  Paris: Dar Babilon, 200pp.

 

MAJOR ISHRAQI-ILLUMINATIONIST THINKERS AND COMMENTATORS

al-Shahrazũrĩ, Shams al-Dĩn Muhammad ibn Maḥmūd (d. c. 687/1288).

  • Sharḥ Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq (Commentary on the Philosophy of Illumination) ed. Hossein Ziai, Tehran: Institute for Cultural Studies and Research, 1372/1993.

  • Nuzhat al-arwāḥ. Istanbul: Yeni Cami, 1908.

  • Nuzhat al-Arwah wa-Rawdat al-Afrāh fī Tārīkh al-Hukamā' wa'l-Falasifa. Ed. S. Khurshid Ahmed. 2 vols.; Haydarabad, 1976.

  •  Ed. Muhammad-'Alî Abu Rayyan. 1st éd. Alexandria: Dar al-Ma'rifa al-Jāmi'a, 1414/1993.

  • Sharḥ Hikmat al-Ishraq. Ed. Hossein Ziai. Tehran: Institute for Cultural Studies and Research, 1993.

Dawwānī, Jalāl al-Dīn (d. 907/1501).

· Shawākil al-ḥur fī sharḥ hayākil al-nūr.  Madras: The Nūrī Press, 1954

 

Harawī, Muhammad-Sharif Nizâm ai-Din (ADD/ADD)

 

`Anwārîya: Tarjuma wa-Sharh-i Hikmat al-Ishraq-i Suhrawardî'. (Persian trans. and commentary on the Hikmat al-Ishraq, written 1008/1600) Ed. Hossein Ziai.Markaz-i Ïranï-yi Mutāla'a-yi Farhanghā, Majmũ'a-yi Mutāla'āt-i Islāmī 3. Tehran: Amīr Kabir, 1358/1980. Persian Commentary on the Hikmat al-Ishraq. *

 

Quţb al-Dïn Mahmud ibn Diya' al-Din Mas`ud al-Shīrāzī (d.710/1131)

Shirāzī, Quṭb al-Dīn (d. 710/1311 or 716/1316)

  • Sharḥ Ḥikmat al-Ishrāq (Commentary on the Philosophy of Illumination), Lithograph ed. Ibrāhīm  Ṭabāṭabā'ī. Tehran 1313/     

  • Durrat al-Tāj li-Ghurrat al-Dibāj ["The Pearly Crown for Dubāj's Brow"] (Persian)  . 8 vols. in 3. Vol. 1. Ed. Muhammad Mishkāt. Vol. 2. Ed. Hasan Mishkān Tabasī. Tehran: Majlis, 1939-46. [Vol. 3]: Bakhsh-i Hikmat-i 'Amali wa-Sayr wa-Sulũk. Ed. Māhdukht Humayl. 1st ed. Shirkat-i Intishārāt-i 'Ilmī wa ֊Farhangĩ 247. [Tehran]: Wizarat-i Farhangï wa-Āmũzish-i 'Ālī, 1990. *

  • Durrat al-Tāj li-Ghurrat al-Dibāj. Vol.1 containing contains parts 1-5 ), Tehran: Intisharat-i Hikmat  [1st ed. 1317 Sh./ 1938]  2nd printing [in  2vols. ] 1365Sh./1986. *

  • Sharh Hikmat al-lshrāq. Edited by Asad-Allah Harati. [Tehran]: 1895-97.

Dr. Muhammad Tāqī Mīr

  • Sharḥ-i ḥāl va āthār `Allamah Quṭb al-Dīn Maḥmūd Ibn Maṣūd Shirazi. Dr. Muhammad Taqi Mīr [= No. 91]. Shiraz: Intisharat Danishgah Pahlavi. n.d. (vi+130pp. +130-159 index).*

John Walbridge,

  •  The Science of Mystic Lights, Qutb al-Din Shirazi and the Illumationist Tradition in Islamic Philosophy (= Harvard Middle Eastern Monographs XXVI) Cambridge Mass. Garvard Univ. Press, 1992 (296pp.)..*
     

 

SUHRAWARDI - BIOGRAPHICAL WRITINGS

Walbridge,  in his The Leaven of the Ancients (2000) has some excellent paragraphs about Suhrawardi biography. He writes, "I know of five major medieval biographies of Suhrawardi, all dating from the early and middle parts of the thirteenth century, written by authors who were one to three generations younger than Suhrawardi" :

• Yāqūt al-Hamawī, Kitāb Irshād al-Arīb ila Ma'rifat al-Adīb al-Ma'ruf bi-Mu'jam al-Udabā' āw Ţabaqat al-Udahā՝ 1st ed.; Cairo: Maţba'a Hindĩya, 1925), 7:269-72.
• Ibn Abī Uşaybi'a, 'Uyūn al-Anbā՝ fî Ṭabaqāt al-Atibbā', ed. A. Müller (Königsberg, 1884), 1:168-71; the edition by N. Rida (Beirut, 1968), 641-646 differs slightly from Müller's.
• Ibn Fadl Allah al-'Umarī, Masālik al-AbsārfīMamālik al-Amsār, ed. Fuat Sezgin (Publications of the Institute for Arabic-Islamic Science, Ser. C, 46; Frankfurt am Main: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science, 1988), 9:86-93, which is based largely but not entirely on Ibn Abī Uşaybi'a.
• Ibn Khallikān, Wafāyāt al-A'yān wa-Anbā՝ Abnā' al-Zamān, ēd. Iḥsān 'Abbās (Beirut: Dar al-Thaqafa, 1968), 6:268-74; trans. W. M. de Slane, Ibn Khallikan՝ s Biographical Dictionary (Oriental Translation Fund 59; Paris, 1843-71).

• Shahrazūrī, Nuzhat al-Arwāḥ, ed. Ahmad, 2:119-43;

Shahrazūrī, Nuzhat al-Arwāḥ, ed. Abu Rayyān, 600-22.

"Ahmed, Sh Nuzhat al-Arwāḥ; and Abu Rayyan, ed., Sh Nuzhat al-Arwāḥ, which appears to be superior to the Ahmed edition, of which Abu Rayyan was seemingly unaware. Toward the end of this project another edition came to my attention: ed. 'Abd al-Karîm Abu Shuwayrib (1st ed.; [Tripoli, Libya?]: Jam'Iyat al-Da'wa al-Islamlya al-'Alamlya, 1988). It was done on (lu-basis of two Islanbul MSS, but it is sharply criticized by Abu Rayyan, 44-50. The seventeenth-century Persian translation of Nuzhat al-Arwah by Maqsud-'Ali Tabriz! has recently been published by M. T. Danish-Pa/.huh and M. S. Mawla'i (Tehran, 1986) and differs (considerably at times) from the Arabic text. Part of tin-notice on Suhrawardi in this text has been translated in MVI. I 4. Thackslon's translation is based on the partial edition of S. H Nasr in .SMj 3:13-30. This edition includes the Arabic text as well as the Persian translation of Tabrizī. I have cited both the Ahmed and the Abu Rayyan editions and have preferred the readings of Abu Rayyan unless otherwise noted. I have not used the Tabrizī Persian translation. The Nuzhat is based on earlier works, al-Mubashshir b. Fātik's Mukhtār al-Hikam (Los bocados de oro, ed. 'Abd al-Rahmān. Badawĩ [Madrid, 1377/1958]) being the most important but not the only source." (Walbridge, 2000:232-3).
 

"A slightly later account, significant for its sympathy to Suhrawardi, is al-Dhahabî, al-'lbar fī Khabar Man Ghabar, ed. Salāh al-Dîn al-Munajjid (al-Turāth al-'Arabî 10; Kuwait: Wizarat al-Irshād wa'l-Anba', 1963), 4:263-64. It is based on Ibn Khallikān.
A source for several of the accounts is Ibn Shaddād, the biographer of Saladin and advisor to al-Malik al-Zāhir, who was actually involved in Suhrawardl's condemnation; see Bahā al-Dīn Ibn Shaddād, Sirat Salāh al-Dîn: al-Sīrat al-Yūsufìya, ed. Jamāl ai-Din al-Shayyal (1st ed.; Cairo: al-Khānjī, 1962), 10; trans. The Life of Salah ud Din Ayyubi (reprint Rawalpindi: Army Book Club, 1983), 10-11.
        A later account, citing skeptical Sufis, is 'Abd al-Rahmān Jāmī, Nafahāt al-Uns, ed. M. 'Abuli (Tehran: lllilā'āt, 1375/1996), 584-86.

        As is to be expected, the early biographies are interdependent to a considerable  degree. though each has information not shared by the others. Yaqūt, Ibn Abī Uşaybi'a, and Ihn Khallikan all cite Ibn Shaddād. Ibn Khallikān and Ibn Fadl Allāh cite Ibn Abî Uşaybi'a. Shahrazūrī is dependent on either Ibn Abî Uşaybi'a or on his source Sadïd ai-Din Ibn Raqîqa, though he seems to have his own sources as well. Viewpoints differ, ranging from Ibn Shaddād's pious hatred of the heretic to Shahrazūrī's frank adulation, with the rest of the sources expressing some degree of cautious reserve.

        There are many modern accounts of Suhrawardï, but no really satisfactory historical or bibliographical study. In addition to the works mentioned in ch. 1, nn. 2-3 above, see Nasr, Sages, 52-82; George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science (Carnegie Institution Publication 376; Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution, 1931), 2/1:361-62; GAL, Gl:247, SI:781. Most of the modern editions and translations of Suhrawardï's works also contain more or less extensive accounts of his life and works. Most do not add anything new" (2000: 233-4).

Several Suhrawardi biographies are listed below.
 

 

 

GENERAL SOURCES AND STUDIES ON SUHRAWARDI AND ISHRAQI THOUGHT.

 

"The best rigorous modern philosophical study of the Illuminationist tradition and its successors is Toshihiko Izutsu, The Concept and Reality of Existence (Studies in the Humanities and Social Relations; Tokyo: Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies, 1971); though it is mainly concerned with the nineteenth-century philosopher Sabziwari, it deals with the whole earlier ontological tradition. On Suhrawardi specifically, see my The Science of Mystic Lights and Ziai, Knowledge and Illumination [1990]; idem, "Shihāb al-Dĩn Suhrawardi," "The Illuminationist Tradition," and "Mullā Sadra: His Life and Works," in Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman, eds., History of Islamic Philosophy (Routledge History of World Philosophies 1:1; London: Routledge, 1996), 434—96, 643-62. Older works from a philosophical perspective include Muhammad Iqbal, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (Lahore: Bazm-Iqbal, 1959 [1908]), 96-116; A. Dānā-Sirisht, Khulāsa-i Afkār-i Suhrawardi wa Mullā Sadra (Tehran, 1934); Muhammad-'Alī Abu Rayyan, Usûl al-Falsafa al-Ishrãqtya (Beirut: Dar al-Ţalaba al-'Arab, 1969), and idem, "al-Ishraqïya Madrasa Aflaţunlya Islamĩya: Munaqashat Qadĩyat al-Maşdar al-īrānī," in Ibrahim Madkūr, ed., al-Kitāb al-Tidhkārī: Shaykh al-lshraq Shihāb al-Dln al-Suhrawardï (al-Mak֊ taba al-'Arabĩya 159; Cairo: Wizarat al-Thaqafa, 1394/1974), 37-62. There are, of course, many more articles." (Walbridge, 2000: 232).

 

Abū Rayyān, Muhammad-'Ali.

  • Uṣūl al-Falsafa al-Ishrāqlīa. Beirut: Dar al-Ţalaba al-'Arab, 1969.
  • "Kayf Ubīh Dam al-Suhrawardî al-Ishrāqī." al-Thaqafa 702 (16 Ramadan 1371/9 June 1952).
  •  
  • Aminrazavi, Mehdi.,

    • "Suhrawardi's metaphysics of illumination," Hamdard Islamicus 15 1992), pp. 19-36.

    • Suhrawardi and the School of Illumination, Richmond, Surrey, Curzon Press, 1997.

    • `How Ibn Sinian is Suhrawardi's Theory of Knowledge' in Philosophy East & West 53/2 (April 2003), 203-214.

    • "The Significance of Suhrawardĩ's Persian Sufi Writings in the Philosophy of Illumination." In Leonard Lewisohn, ed. Classical Persian Sufism: From its Origins to Rumi. London: Khaniqahi Nimatullahi Publications, 1993. Pp. 259-83.

    • Suhrawardi and the School of Illumination. Curzon Sufi Series. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1996.

     

    Ashtiyānī, Jalāl al-Dīn (ed.)

     

    • Consciousness and reality : studies in memory of Toshihiko Izutsu (=Islamic philosophy, theology, and science, v. 38.), Leiden: Brill, 2000.

     Islamic resurgence / Al-Wāqidī, the orientalists and apologetics -- The Quranic commentaries of Mullā Ṣadrā / The meaning and experience of happiness in Islām / Danishnamah-i Maysari, the oldest medical compendium in Persian verse / Why decline of Buddhism took place in India? / The paradise garden paradigm / The Pīr-Murīd relationship in the thought of āyn al-Qūdāt Hamadānī / Refiguring postmodern times / In the gardens : a psychological memoir / Legacy of the prophetic experience in Judaism / Avatars japonais de l'ascension d'Alexandre / Ibn ārabi's conception of God's universal mercy : the chapter on Zakariyya* in the Fusus al-Hikam / The unique Arabic manuscript of Aristotle's Ars Rhetorica and its two editions published to date by `Abdurraḥmān Badawī and by M[alcolm] C. Lyons / On the originality of "Izutsu" oriental philosophy / Le soufisme entre Louis Massignon et Henry Corbin -- Christian Jambet -- La révélation coranique et la gnose islamique / Hallāj in the Sawānih of Ahmad Ghazālī / An essay on "creatio ex nihilo" / The structure of consciousness in Sankara's philosophy / On Sufi psychology : a debate between the soul and the spirit / Unity of ontology and epistemology in Qai*sariī's philosophy / āzīz-i Nasafi* and the essence-existence debate / La voie de Hallâj et la voie d'Ibn ārabī / Suhrawardi, philosopher or mystic : golden triangle of his worldview / Bibliography of Toshihiko Izutsu's writings -- Appendix : Catalogue of lithographed books of Iran in the Library of Toshihiko Izutsu /

    Burnet, J.,

    • "The Socratic Doctrine of the Soul." Proceedings of the British Academic 7 (1915-1916).

     

    Bylebly, Michael,

    • ' The Wisdom of Illumination: A Study of the Prose Stories of Suhrawardi.'.  Ph.D. Diss, University of Chicago, 1976.

     

    Carra de Vaux.

    •  "La philosophie illuminative d'après Suhrawardi Maqtul." Journal Asiatique 19 (1902): 63--94.

     

     

    Corbin, Henry,

    • Suhrawardï d՝Mep: fondateur de la doctrine illuminative. Paris: G. P. Maisonneuve, 1939.

    • "Rawabit-i hikmat-i ishraq wa falsafa-yi Iran-i bastan." Majillayah-yi anjuman-i Iran shinast, no. 3 (1946): 34ff.

    • Suhrawardi d'Alep : fondateur de la doctrine illuminative (Publications de la Societâe des `etudes iraniennes ; no. 16) Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve, 1939 (45pp.).

    • Les motifs zoroastriens dans la philosophie de Sohrawardāi, Shaykh-ol-Ishraq (ob. 587/1191), (= Publications de la Societe d'Iranologie ; no.3) Tehran: Editions du Courrier , 1946. (56 [8]pp.).

    • Les Motifs zoroastriens dans la philosophie de Sohravardī. Publications de la Société d'Iranologie 3. Tehran: du Courrier, 1946.

    • Sohrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā..' in P. Edwards ed. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy  (ADD 1967) vol. 7 pp. 486-7.

    • Avicenne et le recit visionare, Tehran: Societe  des Monuments Nationaux 1954 = trans. W. R. Trask, Avicenna and the Visionary Recital. Bollingen Series 66 , New York Pantheon, 1960.

    • En Islam iranien, 4 volumes, Paris: Gallimard, 1971.

    • L'Archange empourpré: Quinze traités et récits mystiques traduits du persan et de l'arabe. Paris: Fayard, 1976.

    • En Islam iranien. 4 vols. Vol. 2, Sohravardī et les Platoniciens de Perse. Paris: Gallimard, 1971-72.

    • History of Islamic Philosophy. Trans. Liadain Sherrard. London: Kegan Paul International, 1993.

    • Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth. Translated by Nancy Pearson. Bollingen Series no. 91:2. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

       

    Corbin, H. and Paul Kraus,

    •  "Traitée du bruissement de l'aile de Gabriel." Journal Asiatique (1935): 1-82.

     

    Charles E. Butterworth and Blake Andrée Kessel. eds.,

    • The Introduction of Arabic philosophy into Europe,  (Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, 0169-8125; Bd. 39) Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, 1994

    Dabashi, Hamid.

    • Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. New York: New York University Press, 1993.

    Dānā-Saresht, Akbar.

    • Kholāse-ye Afkār-e Sohravardī va Mollā Sadrā. Tehran, 1934.
    • Afkār-i Suhrawardi wa Mullā Sadra. Tehran: Tehran University Press, 1939.

     Dīnānī, Ghulām Husayn.

    • Shua'i andisha wa shuhūd dar falsafa-yi Suhrawardi. Tehran: Hikmat Pub., 1985.

    Evans, Robert.

    •  "Henry Corbin and Suhrawardi's Angelology." Hamdard Islamicusll, no. 1 (n.d.): 12-20.
       

    Fakhry, Majid.

    • A history of Islamic philosophy. (Studies in Oriental culture. no. 5) New York: Columbia University Press, 1970
    • Philosophy, dogma, and the impact of Greek thought in Islam, . Altershot, Hampshire, Great Britain; Brookfield, Vt., USA: Variorum, 1994 
    • "Al-Suhrawardĩ's Critique of the Muslim Peripatetics (al-Mashshā'ūn)." In Parviz Morewedge, ed. Philosophies of Existence, Ancient and Modern. New York: Fordham University Press, 1982. Reprinted in Fakhry, Philosophy, Dogma, sect. xvii.
       

    Edward J. Jurji

    • S. K. Khatak -  Shihābuddin Suhrawardī Maqtūl Review  in Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 56, No. 4. (Dec., 1936), pp. 516-517.

    Halamı, M.M.

    • "Āthār al-Suhrawardi al-maqtul taşnifuha wa khaşa'şuha al-tasawwufiyyāt wa'l-falsafiyyat." Kulĩyat al-ā'dāb 2 (1951): 145-178.

     Habibi, N.

    • Si Risālah äz shaykh-i ishraq. Tehran: Imperial Academy of Philosophy Press, 1975.

    Ha'iri, Mehdi, Y.

    • (trans. + comm. )`Suhrawardi's An Episode and a Trance: A Philosophical Dialogue in Mystical State' in Morewedge, Parviz (.ed.) Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books 1981[Rep. 1997] pp. 177-189.
    • The Principles of Epistemology in Islamic Philosophy: Knowledge by Presence. New York: SUNY Press, 1992.

    Harawi, Ahmad ibn.

    • Anwariyyah. Tehran: Amir Kabir Press, 1980.

    Harawī, Muhammad-Sharif b. Nizâm ai-Din b.

    • `Anwārîya: Tarjuma wa-Sharh-i Hikmat al-Ishraq-i Suhrawardî'. Ed. Hossein Ziai.Markaz-i Ïranï-yi Mutāla'a-yi Farhanghā, Majmũ'a-yi Mutāla'āt-i Islāmī 3. Tehran: Amīr Kabir, 1358/1980.

    Horten, M.

    • Dle Philosophie der Erleuchtung nach Suhrawardi (1191). Abhanlun-gen zur Philosophie und ihrer Geschichte 38. Halle: Strauss and Cramer, 1912. Reprinted Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1981.
       

    Ibrāhīmī Dīnānī, Ghulām-Husayn. 

    • Shu'ā`֊i Andīsha wa-Shuhūd dar Falsafa-yi Suhrawardî. [Tehran]: Hikmat, 1985.
       

    Ibn Kammūna, Sa`d ibn Manṣūr (d.638/1284). Jewish thinker of Baghdad

    See full size image

     

    See Routledge HIP 1:484-496.

     

    • Sharh al-Talwīhāt al-lawhiyya  wa al-‘Arshiyya.  3 vols. ed. Dr. Najaf Qoli Habibi, Tehran: Miras-i Maktub, 2009.

    • "Ibn Kammūnah in his Sharh al-Talwīhāt, drawing upon the whole knowledge of his time and benefiting from other Suhrawardī's works, has admirably managed to explain complexities of the work. It is also an invaluable work in highlighting the views of Shaykh al-Ishrāq as well as clarifying Ibn Sīnā's positions in al-Shifā' and al-Ishārāt wa al-Tanbīhāt..." .  

    • al-Jadid fi al-Ḥikma ("The New Philosophy").

    • Sa’d b. Mansûr ibn Kammûna’s examination of the inquiries into the Three Faiths. A thirteenth-century essay in comparative religion (= University of California Publications, Near Eastern Studies, 6). Ed. Moshe Perlmann. Berkeley 1967 (xii, 119pp.)
    •  
    • al-Talwīḥāt
    • Al-Tanqīhāt fi Sharḥ al-Talwīhāt: Refinement and Commentary on Suhrawardi’s Intimations, A Thirteenth Century Text on Natural Philosophy and Psychology, Ibn Kammuna, critical edition, with introduction and analysis by Hossein Ziai and Ahmed Alwishah, Bibliotheca Iranica, Intellectual Traditions Series, No.9, Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2003, ISBN 1-568-59106-3, ix + 48 + 490 pp.

    "The present work is a critical edition of the section on physics of a large commentary on the Talwihat or Intimations, one of Suhrawardi’s so-called “Peripatetic” works written in the conventional style of Ibn Sina. Its metaphysical section was included in Corbin’s edition of Suhrawardi’s works, but, so far as I know, the physical portion has never been published. The present work is probably the most significant published text dealing with the physical doctrines of the early Illuminationist school; it is certainly the largest..." John Walbridge from the review in Iranian Studies 38/3 (Sept. 2005),  520-1.

    • Sharh al-Talwihat..  al-Tanqihat fi Sharh al-Talwihat, edited with Introduction and notes by H. Ziai and A. Alwishah. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, 2004.

    • al-Jadīd fi'l-Ḥikmah

    SELECT ARTICLES

    Schmidtke, Sabine 

    • "Studies on Sa'd b. Mansūr ibn Kammūna (d. 683/1284): Beginnings, Achievements, Perspectives," Persica 19 (2003), pp. 107-123,

    Tzvi Langermann, Y.

    • "Ibn Kammūna and the 'New Wisdom' of the Thirteenth Centūry," Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15 (2005), 277-327.
    • `Ibn Kammūna at Aleppo' JRAS, Series 3, 17/1 (2007), 1-19. 

    _____________________________

     

    Izutsu, Toshihiko.

    • Ishraqiyah' in M.  Eliade ed. The Encyclopedia of Religions vol. ADD : 296-301.

     Jurjï, E. J.

    • "The Ishraqi Revival of al-Suhrawardi." Journal of the American Oriental Society 60 (1940): 90-94.

    Imam, Kazim S. M.

    • Falsafah dar Iran-i bastan wa mabāní-yi hikmat-i ishraq. Tehran: Nourani Found., 1974.
       

    Kuşpinar, Bilal.

    • Ismā'll Ankaravĩ on the Illuminative Philosophy. Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 1996.
       

    Masood Ali Khan and S. Ram.

    • Sufism and Suhrawardi Order/edited by Masood Ali Khan and S. Ram. New Delhi, Anmol, 2003, x, 368 p., ISBN 81-261-1373-1. [Encyclopaedia of Sufism Series]

    Contents: Preface. 1. Early Sufis-I. 2. Early Sufis-II. 3. ‘Abd Al-Qadir Jilani and Shihab Al-Din Suhrawardi. 4. Shihab Al-Din Suhrawardi Maqtul. 5. Suhrawardi and the illuminationists. 6. Ibn ‘Arabi. 7. Ibn ‘Arabi and the Sufis. 8. The life of Ibn ‘Arabi. 9. Ibn ‘Arabi and Islamic philosophy. 10. The nature of Ibn ‘Arabi’s doctrine. 11. Themes in Ibn ‘Arabi’s philosophy. 12. Ibn Arabi’s texts. 13. A selection from Tarjumanu al-Ashwaq. 14. Syedna Hazrat Hafiz Haji Warris Ali Shah of Deva-Sharif. 15. Hazrat Taj-ul-Aulia Baba Syed Mohammad Chisti Sabri Qalandar Nagpuri. 16. Hazrat Syed Hafiz Haji Shah Sheikh Farid Ganjshakr Baba Sahib Masood Al-Alameen, Qutub-e-Alam, Sultan-Al-Mashaik. 17. The Suhrawardi Order. 18. The sub-divisions of the Suhrawardi Order. 19. Suhrawardi and the being of light philosophy of Ishraq. 20. Shaikhul Mashaikh Hazrat Makhdum Ghazi Shaikh Jalaluddin Mujjarad Suharwardy Yemani Sylheti. 21. Hazrat Bu-Ali Shah Sharfuddin Qalandar. 22. Hazrat Syedna Makhdoom Ahmed Ali Alauddin Sabr Kalyari. 23. Al-Ghazzali with special reference to his inner development. 24. The relation of knowledge and morality in the ethical system of Al-Ghazzali. 25. An exposition of Al Ghazzali’s views on the problem of the freedom of the will. 26. Suhrawardi Maqtul’s philosophical position according to the works of his youth. Bibliography. Index.

    Macuch, Rudolf,

    • Greek and Oriental Sources of Avicenns's and Sohrawardi's Theosophies' in Graeco-Arabica vol.2 (1983) pp. 10-22.

    Mo’in, Muhammad,

    • (1955). هًوَرقْلَيَا [Havaqalya] in Majalla-i Daneshkhada-i Adabiyyat, VI (1333 Sh.), 78-105.

    Morewedge, Parviz (.ed.)

    • Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism.  Delmar, New York: Caravan Books 1981+ Rep. 1997.
    • Neoplatonism and Islamic thought. (Studies in neoplatonism; v. 5) Albany: State University of New York Press, c 1992

    Nasr, Seyyed Hossein.

    • Three Muslim Sages. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964.
    • "Suhrawardî" In A History of Muslim Philosophy, ed. M.M. Sharif. l :372-98.
    • and Leaman, Oliver, eds. History of Islamic Philosophy. Routledge History of World Philosophies 1.1. London: Routledge, 1996.
    • Three Muslim sages : Avicenna, Suhrawardī, Ibn Arabī, Delmar, N.Y.: Caravan Books, 1976. Reprint of the 1969 ed. published by Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
       
    • "The Illuministic Suns." Journal of the American Oriental Society 57 (1973): 99-101.
    •  "Mufassir-i 'ālarn-i ghurbat wa shahid-i ţarîq-i ma'ārifat." Ma'ārif-i islam։ 10 (Nov. 1970): p. 8-19.
    • "Nukātī chand dar bāra-yi shaykh-i ishrāq." Ma'arif-i islami, n.s. l (Sep. 1967): 16-18.
    •  "The Relationship Between Sufism and Philosophy in Persian Culture," Hamdard Islamicus 6, no. 4 (1983): 33-47.
    • "Spiritual Movements, Philosophy and Theology in the Safavid Period." In Vol. 4, History of Iran. Edited by R.N. Fry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
    • "The Spread of the Illuminationist School of Suhrawardi," Islamic Quarterly 14 (1970): 111-121.

    Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman eds.,  

    • History of Islamic philosophy, (Routledge history of world philosophies; v. 1) London; New York: Routledge, 1996

    Netton, lan Richard.

    • Allah Transcendent: Studies in the Structure and Semiotics of Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Cosmology. Exeter Arabic and Islamic Series 5. New York: Routledge, 1989.
       

    Otto Spies,

    • Three Treatises on Mysticism by Shihābuddin Suhrawerdī Maqtūl ;

    Razavi, Mehdi Amin.

    • Suhrawardi and the school of illumination. Curzon Sufi series. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1997.

    Schmidtke, Sabine.

    • The Doctrine of the Transmigration of the Soul According to  Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī,( killed 587/1191) and his Followers' in Studia Iranica 28 (1999), 237-254.

    Sharif, M. M. ed.

    • A history of Muslim philosophy. with short accounts of other disciplines and the modern renaissance in Muslim lands. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 1963-66

    Rizvi, Sajjad.

    • `Roots of an Aporia in Later Islamic Philosophy: The Existence-Essence Distinction in the Metaphysics of Avicenna and Suhrawardi' in Studia Iranica 29 (2000) 61-108. 

    • `An Islamic Subversion of the Existence-Essence Distinction? Suhrawardi's visionary Hierarchy of Lights'  in Asian Philosophy Vol. 9 Issue 3, (Nov 1999), 219-228.

    • ABSTRACT The distinction between existence and essence in contingent beings is one of the foundational doctrines of medieval philosophy. Building upon Neoplatonic precursors, thinkers such as Avicenna and Aquinas debated its nature. However, one Islamic philosopher, who had an enormous influence on the development of philosophical discourse in Iran, subverted the traditional Peripatetic vision of reality and disputed the ontological nature of existence. Through a critique of the Peripatetic notion of existence, Suhrawardi demonstrated the irrelevance of the distinction for metaphysical inquiry, which should, instead, rely upon an eidetic vision of the `hierarchy of lights' I shall explain why the later tradition advocated an essentialist (mis)reading of Suhrawardi and suggest that the Platonic hermeneutic of essential vision which Suhrawardi expounds, might be the reason for it. Later philosophers in the Islamic tradition had mistaken methodology for a description of reality [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

    Sajjadi, Sayyid Ja`far,

    • Sharh Rasa'il Farsi Suhrawardi,  Tehran: ADD 1376/1997.

    • Shihāb al-Din Suhrawardi wa sayri darfaLsafah-yi ishraq. Tehran: Falsafah Press, 1984.

    Sharaf, Muhammad Jalal Abū'l-Futūh.

    • al-Madhhab al-lshrāqĩ bayn al-Falsafa wa'l-Dîn fı'l-Fikr al-Islaml. al-Maktaba al-Falsafĩya. Cairo: Dar al-Ma'ārif, 1972.
       

    Tabātabā'ī, Muhammad Husayn,

    • Usūl-i falsafah wa rawish-i ri'ālism, Murtadā Muţahhari, 5 vol., Qum 1350/1972.

    Tehrani Kāzim.

    • "Mystical Symbolism in Four Treatises of Suhrawardi." Ph.D. Diss., Columbia University, 1974.

    • `The Roleof the Sage in the works of Suhrawardi' in Morewedge ed. = Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books 1981[1997] pp. 191-205.

    Thackston, W. M.

    • Mystical and Visionary Treatise of Suhrawardi. London: Octagon Press, 1982.

    • The Philosophical Allegories and Mystical Treatises, (Persian+ English text) ed. & tr. W. M. Thackston. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Pub. 1999.

    Tuft, Anthony.

    • Symbolism and Speculation in in Suhrawardi's, The Song of Gavriels's Wing' in Morewedge ed. = Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books 1981[1997] pp. 207-221.

    Tzvi Langermann, Y. 

    • "Saving the Soul by Knowing the Soul: A Medieval Yemeni Interpretation of Song of Songs,"  in Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 12 (2003), 147-166. This article contains "some preliminary remarks on the reception of Ishraqism in Jewish circles, especially with reference to Maimonides and medieval Yemen". 

    Walbridge, John

    • The science of mystic lights, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1992.*
    •  The Leaven of the Ancients. New York: SUNY Press, 2000. *

    • The Wisdom of the mystic East: Suhrawardi and Platonic Orientalism  Albany: State University of New York Press, c 2001 (170pp.).*
    • "Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr: An Introduction to His Philosophy." In Linda Walbridge, Most Learned.
    •  "A Persian Gulf in the Sea of Lights: The Chapter on Nau-Rūz in the Bihar al-Anwar, " Iran 35 (1997): 83-92. *
    • "The Political Thought of Quţb al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī," in Butterworth, Political Aspects, pp. 345-78. *
    • The Science of Mystic Lights: Qutb al-Din Shirazi and the Illuminationist Tradition in Islamic Philosophy. Harvard Middle Eastern Monographs 26. Cambridge: Harvard Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 1992. *
    • "Suhrawardi, a Twelfth Century Muslim Neo-Stoic?" Journal of the History of Philosophy 34.4 (Oct. 1996): 515-33.*
    • The Wisdom of the Mystic East: Suhrawardi and Platonic Orientalism. SUNY Series in Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press, forthcoming.
    • `Suhrawardi and Illuminationalism' Ch. 10 (pp.201-223) in Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge:  Cambridge Univ. Press 2005. *

     Webb, G.

    • The Human /Angelic Relation in the Philosophies of Suhrawardi and Ibn 'Arabi. Ph.D. Diss., Temple Univ., 1989.

    Yazdi, Mehdi Hā'irí.

    • The Principles of Epistemology in Islamic Philosophy: Knowledge by Presence. With a forward by S.H. Naşr. New York: SUNY
      Press, 1992.

    Ziai, Hossein.

    • "Suhrawardi's Philosophy of Illumination." Ph.D. Diss., Harvard University, 1976.

    • "The Manuscript of al-Shajara al-llahïya. " Iranshenasi 2.1 (Spring 1990): 89-108.

    • Knowledge and Illumination. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990.

    • Knowledge and illumination (= Brown Judaic Studies Np. 97), Atlanta, GA,:  Scholars Press, 1990.
    • Knowledge and Illumination: A Study of Sohravardi's Hikmat al-Ishrăq, Atlanta, 1990Ե.
    • "Beyond Illumination: Suhrawardi's Illuminationist Path to Wisdom." In Frank E. Reynolds and David Tracy, eds. Myth and Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.
    • "Beyond Illumination: Suhrawardi's Illuminationist Path to Wisdom." In Frank E. Reynolds and David Tracy, eds. Myth and Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.
    • "Mošāheda. raveš֊e ešraq, wa zabān-e še'r," Irān-nāmailran Nameh 8/1, Winter 1990e, pp. 81-94.

    • "The Manuscript of al-Sajara al-elahiya, a Philosophical Encyclopedia by Šams-al-Din Šahrazuri." Iranšenasillranshenasi 2/1, Spring 1990d, pp. 89-108.

    • "Sohravardi wa siāsat." Irān-nāma/Iran Nameh 9/3, Summer 1991. pp. 396-410.

    • `The Source and Nature of Political Authority in Suhrawardi's Philosophy of Illumination' in Aspects of Islamic Political Philosophy, ed. Charles Butterworth. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), pp. 294-334.

    • "Source and Nature of Authority: A Study of Suhrawardi's Illuminationist Political Doctrine," in The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy. ed. Charles Butterworth, Cambridge, Mass., 1992a. pp. 304-44.

    • Ta'rifwa mabāni-e šenākt dar f al safa֊ ye ešraq (Definition and the foundations of knowledge in Illuminationist philosophy), section on al-aqwal al-šāreha from the unpublished text al-Masare' wa'l-motãrahãt, in Borhān Ebn Yousef, ed. Jaśn-nama-ye 'Ostad.lawãdMosleh, Los Angeles, 1993. pp. 108-30.

    • "Explaining the Philosophical Meaning of Şadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī's 'Metaphysical Philosophy,' Hikmat-e Mota'aliyeh." Iranshenasi 5.2 (Summer 1993): 354-64.

    • "The Illuminationist Tradition" and "Shihab al-Din Yalıya Suhrawardi," in The Routledge History of Islamic Philosophy, eds. S. H. Nasr and Oliver Leaman, London, 1995, pp. 434-64 and 465-96.

    • `The Illuminationist Tradition" in History of Islamic Philosophy, ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman. pp. 465-96.
    • `Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi: Founder of the Illuminationist School' in History of Islamic Philosophy, ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman.  1996 pp.434-464.

    • "Sūhrawardī," Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition, vol. 9 (Leiden, 1997), 782-784
    • "al-Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā  b. Ḥabash b. Amīrak  `Abu al-Futūḥ' in EI2 IX: 782-784.

    • al-Suhrawardi, Shihab al-Din." in El2 IX. 1997. pp. 782-84.

    • "Illuminationist Philosophy." in The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy \\. ed. Eduard Graig, London, 1998b, pp. 700-703.

    • Suhrawardi's The Book of Radiance 'forrou• \amehi. a parallel English Persian text. ed. and tr. with introd.. Costa [page 1] Mesa, 1998c.

    • + Ahmad Alwishah, Studies in Medieval Physics: Ibn Kammuna's al-Tanqihatfi Shark al-Talwihat. Costa Mesa. 2003.

    • + John Wal-bridge. The Philosophy of Illumination. English tr. of Suhrawardi's Hekmat al-Ishraq, plus a new critical ed. of the Arabic text, with introd., notes, and glossaries of technical terms, 2000.

    • `Illumationism' in EIr. vol. XII/6-p. 671f+ XIII/1 pp.1-2. 

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